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6 posts tagged history


February is Black History Month.  Let’s take time to celebrate the work of Lewis Phectic Haslett an African American inventor who in 1849 received a patent for his Inhaler or Lung Protector, the predecessor to the modern gas mask.  Lewis P. Haslett’s simple device lead the way to the more technologically advanced masks used during the two World Wars to protect soldiers and their horses from poison gas attacks.  This field manual titled Defense Against Chemical Attack published in 1940 by the War Department shows soldiers the correct way to wear a mask and how to put a mask on your war horse.

Make sure you have secured your own mask before helping your horse with its mask. 

The reactivity series for metals was born in 1771 when Luigi Galvani touched two different metals to a frogs legs and it involuntarily jumped.  He found the greater the difference in the metals, the larger the effect.  Alessandro Volta expanded on Galvani’s work and created the reactivity series.  

Here is a link to a video of what appears to be someone replicating the Galvani experiment on their kitchen counter next to their tooth brush.  Eew.

Summer Whites

We are blanched, my children and me – our hair blonde, our swimwear faded – the result of that oh-so-summery chemical reaction oxidation.  We are bombarded on multiple fronts all summer long.  Observing this caused a thunderhead to form inside my brain, swirling with questions of enwhitenment.  

The storm broke while I was bleaching the white pants from my son’s summer baseball uniform.  I had pulled out the Clorox bottle more times this summer than I have since it was purchased 5 years ago.  How were the powers of this electron hungry solution ever unearthed?  


I found out the antiseptic, antibacterial, stain-remover known as bleach (and sometimes referred to as Chlorine) was discovered at a time of war in response to limited resources, then discarded for 30 years – the undesirable by-product in the formation of another substance – until it eventually revolutionizing the textile industry and ignited the chemical industry.  The story begins, as many do, with the sun.  

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I learned about the science that Fritz Haber unearthed when I was a freshman chemistry major, yet I always have to look it up.  ”The Born-Haber cycle, what is that again? Oh, yeah isolating elements from their salts.”  The story behind the chemistry, as told in this week’s episode of Radiolab, is so horrifyingly ironic I will never forget its association again! 

First of All – Men


Somehow I came to possess a series of booklets that were produced by the public relations department at General Motors between 1939 and 1941.  Most of them provide education on various aspects of an automobile’s workings.  They are boldly optimistic and beautifully illustrated.

I tried to determine the purpose of their creation, but came up short.  One possibility is the booklets were sent to Ford owners to convince them to buy GM, a practice common to the car company during this time period.  But their tone is more informative than persuasive.  Another possibility is they were prepared for distribution during the 1939 New York World’s Fair.  

That year, GM sponsored an exhibit called Futurama.  People waited in line for hours to experience it.  Visitors were moved through a vision of the future while a narrator relayed what could be expected in coming years.  The pamphlet I have from the same year, titled To New Horizons, has the same oracle tone.  But in all that GM could see, the company could not envision a future where more women would participate in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.  ”The only secret of successful research is men,” the pamphlet claims.  


My first thought when I read this was, I am glad I don’t live in 1939.  Then I remembered a recent study.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development tested 470,000 students in 65 developed nations.  In the majority of countries 15 year old girls earned higher scores on a science exam than boys.  The United States was not among them.  The US came in 62nd place, only in Liechtenstein and Columbia do girls score worse than boys in science than they do in the US.  In a New York Times report of the study an OECD representative states, “Different countries offer different incentives for learning math and science.” What social incentive do we offer American girls?

Last month I was talking to my neighbor’s 10 year old daughter on the way home from the bus.  I asked her if she was planning to participate in an after school math program with my son.  She replied, “No, girls don’t do that kind of thing.”

Now, I know for a fact that girls do and that many of those girls are her friends.  So it really threw me to hear her say that.  Where had she picked up this line of thinking?  

My neighbor’s kid is smart and funny, the type who seems to have the confidence and ability to do anything.  She is stuck in a cul-de-sac filled with boys.  When the weather is warm, and all the kids are forced outside to play, I look out the window and smile as she organizes a “campfire” with spare wood and folding chairs, jumps on a pogo stick while playing the violin, or rides down a steep driveway on a skateboard topped with a boogie board.  She never seemed to be the kind of kid who would proclaim there is anything girls don’t do.

Her parents are both engineers.  Her mom is an electrical engineer who works a few hours a day from home while the kids are at school.  Math is a priority in her household; her mom creates practice exams before every test.  When the third grade was studying electricity she happily relayed to the class what her mom had taught her about energy flowing through a circuit.  This is the child whose reflex is to tell me, girls don’t do math?      

The pamphlet by General Motors points out a cultural feedback that has been created in the United States.  Considerable nationalism surrounds the technology developed in this country.  The automobile is rooted here.  This is the only country to have engineered a manned moon landing.  It was the first country to produce, and the only country to deploy, an atomic bomb.  All of these achievements are associated with the minds of men; therefore, you have to be a man to have the mind to achieve.  This belief is an unfortunate outcome of the success of our nation.      

The ghosts of our past are difficult to exorcise. It is going to take a long time until “Girls don’t do that kind of thing” is eradicated from our national vocabulary.  A child, like my neighbor’s, who is swimming in opportunity to pursue a STEM career is still influenced by a generation who thought the only secret of successful research is men.